Glass negatives, digitisation, and ‘The πιθηκος’

After I finished processing the nitrate film negatives which I talked about in my last post, I moved on to the twenty-four negative booklets (albums) and catalogued them to file level. I also processed two boxes of glass negatives which also form part of the ‘Photographs and collected postcards series’ (PEN 7). These two boxes contain a total of twenty-six glass negatives, most possible gelatin dry plate negatives, which measure 125mm x 175mm. These plates show museum objects, mostly from Knossos, and drawings from Tel el-Amarna.

Photograph of a glass plate negative showing a restoration drawing by E. Gilliéron of the “Captain of the Blacks’ fresco in the House of the Frescos, Knossos [PEN 7/5/26/6]. Copyright: British School at Athens.

Gelatin dry plate negatives replaced collodion glass plate negatives at the end of the 19th century and were extensively used during the beginning of the 20th century until they were replaced by lighter nitrate film negatives. Like the latter, glass negatives are very fragile: they are heavy and subject to breakage, chipping, fractures and delamination of the gelatin image-carrying layer. This type of plate is also vulnerable to oxidative deterioration, which appears as fading, yellowing, and silver mirroring. To prevent deterioration, the plates, together with the nitrate film negatives and photographs, are stored in a cool and dry environment in the Father Edward Bader Photographic Archive Room at the BSA.

Example of the “silver mirroring” effect on one of the glass plate negatives within the collection.

The next task to be done to complete the PEN 7 series was to catalogue the six negative index books, created by John Pendlebury, which refer to the negatives in the albums, and are organised according to the same geographical areas associated with trips around Greece and other Mediterranean countries, as well as England.

The entries for the negatives and negative indexes were the last few needed to complete the Pendlebury catalogue! Therefore, over the last week, I have been selecting and organising  the materials which still need to be digitised. They are the following three series: “Excavation records for excavations in Crete” (PEN 4), “Material relating to the death of John Pendlebury” (PEN 5), and “Collected items relating to the Pendlebury family” (PEN 6).

Preparing these materials for digitisation has given me the opportunity to examine pieces I hadn’t seen yet, such as the papers contained in series PEN 6, which Madelin Evans catalogued before me. This series contains some very interesting documents relating to John’s childhood, education, and early years in Greece including essays about ancient Greek philosophers written by John between 1918 and 1923, a poem titled ´The πιθηκος´, written by John in a mixture of English and Greek and sent to his father whilst he was studying at Winchester College, and a hand-drawn plan of Tanagra (Greece), made by John in the spring of 1923.

School work by John Pendlebury about ancient Greek philosophers [PEN 6/1/5]. Copyright: British School at Athens.
‘The πιθηκος’ (The apes). Poem written by John Pendlebury in February 1919 [PEN 6/1/4]. Copyright: British School at Athens.
Detail of a hand-drawn plan of Tanagra, Greece [PEN 6/1/6]. Copyright: British School at Athens.

But perhaps the most fascinating items are those relating to Crete. It’s well known that John was captivated by the culture, countryside, and people of Crete, and this passion can be seen in papers, such as the poem, ‘Crete! – Crete!’, written by John, and some drawings of traditional Cretan costumes (although the artist is unknown). Finally, I found a transcription of Cretan mantinades, in John’s handwriting, which includes an original couplet written by him.

Poem titled ‘Crete! – Crete!’ by John Pendlebury [PEN 6/1/20]. Copyright: British School at Athens.
Detail of drawings of people [in traditional Cretan costume][PEN 6/1/27]. Copyright: British School at Athens.
Details of ‘ΜΑΤΙΝΑΔΕΣ’ by John Pendlebury [PEN 6/1/21]. Copyright: British School at Athens.

The digitisation of the remaining material is one of the last phases of the John Pendlebury Archive project. Over the next few weeks, I will send all the material to be digitised and will create, together with the BSA’s Archivist, Amalia Kakissis, several spreadsheets and csv files to structure the data contained in the catalogue in a format that can be imported into the EMu collection management software. A new challenge!



Working with Photographic Negatives

I have just finished processing almost 2500 photographic negatives and have come across some very interesting things. These negatives are part of the “Photographs and collected postcards series” (PEN 7), and consist of twenty-four albums of nitrate film negatives, two boxes of glass negatives and six negative index books.


Negative albums in the John Pendlebury Family Papers collection. Copyright: British School at Athens.


The negative albums, organised and kept by John and Hilda Pendlebury, were donated by their daughter, Joan Pendlebury, to the British School at Athens via the Fitzwilliam Museum in 1979. The camera mostly used to take these photos does not survive in the collection, but we have a hint at what it might have looked like from this photo taken of Mercy Money-Coutts using a similar camera. Although other cameras may also have been used since the negatives have different shapes and sizes: a square shape of 60 x 60 mm and a rectangular shape of 60 x 90 mm and 125 x 175 mm.


Hilda Pendlebury and Mercy Money-Coutts. [PEN 7/2/6/693]. Copyright: British School at Athens.

Processing the negatives has been slow and laborious and has involved removing them from the original containers and transferring them into archival grade negative holders as well as giving them an item code, necessary in the cataloguing and digitisation process. Most of the negatives were produced on nitrate cellulose film which is chemically unstable causing volatile deterioration. This film can also be very flammable and capable of sustaining combustion even in the absence of oxygen and underwater. Nitrate film has been the cause of many fires and resulted in innumerable losses of archival records.



While I was processing the negatives, I also had the opportunity to evaluate the conservation conditions for each with the use of a light table which provided an excellent view of their content. I identified some signs of nitrate film deterioration such as the change of clear film to shades of yellow and amber and the fading of the emulsion; the latter takes on a silvery appearance sometimes referred to as “mirroring”. Unfortunately, nitrate film decay is irreversible and autocatalytic. The best thing to do to preserve them, as we are doing in this case, is to take measures to prevent deterioration from continuing further. Before these negatives were stored in proper conditions, some of them started to self-destruct and resulted in the negatives fusing together.


Example of the “mirroring” effect on two of the negatives within the collection.
nigrate negatives destruction sample046
Example of some of the nitrate negatives which have self-destructed.


Now, the Pendlebury negative albums are stored under optimal conditions in the Father Edward Bader Photographic Archive Room at the BSA. This room provides a cool (18ºC) and dry (30-36% relative humidity) environment which is recommended for the preservation of photographic materials.

John Pendlebury appears to have organised these negative albums according to the geographical area associated with trips around Greece and other Mediterranean countries, including Egypt, Italy, Palestine, and Syria, as well as trips back home to England. Each of the negative albums contains an index listing the content of each envelope in each container. Many of the positive prints of these negatives can be found in other sections of the Pendlebury archive such as the travel logs and photographic albums.


Photographic negative [7/5/3/58/1] and positive print [2/2/4/66] of the Temple of Segesta. Copyright: British School at Athens.

The process of handling these negatives has been fascinating. They have the power, perhaps more than positive prints, to transport you to the place where they were taken almost 90 years ago, showing different landscapes, people and ways of life. It is also quite impressive to see how isolated many sites were at the time and reflect on how these have been transformed to become major tourist attractions in Greece today.

To finish this entry, I have selected a few of my favourite photographic negatives in the Pendlebury collection. I hope you like them as much as I do!


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A Dance in the Barracks

Last week I finished cataloguing to item level all the material which hasn’t yet been digitised (excluding photographic negatives). This material included some items relating to John Pendlebury’s death in Crete, in 1941, such as witness statements from Cretans. Most of these statements were written in Greek and later translated into English by Hilda Pendlebury, who was trying to find out what happened to John during the war. Additionally, it contained some items relating to a memorial service for John Pendlebury held on the 2nd of March, 1947, in Heraklion, Crete, that Hilda attended.

Typed copy of the translation into English of “Statement of Aristea Drousoulakis and her sister Theonymphe (wife of Peter Manousakis)”, translated by Hilda Pendlebury [PEN 5/2/1/4] and Narrative of “Aristea, widow of George Drosolakis, and her sister”, handwritten by [R.W. Hutchinson] [PEN 5/2/1/5]. Copyright: British School at Athens.

Another section I completed cataloguing relates to the publication of Archaeology of Crete: An Introduction by John Pendlebury, a book published in 1939. This sub-series comprises the publication agreement between John Pendlebury and Metheun & Co. publishers, signed in 1933, a list of corrections for the book, a promotional leaflet and some book reviews published in journals such as Antiquity, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Nature, The Classical Review, The Antiquaries Journal, etc.

Promotional leaflet of ‘The Archaeology of Crete: An Introduction’, by John Pendlebury (London, 1939) [PEN 3/1/9/3]. Copyright: British School at Athens.

Finally, I catalogued to item level a section relating to the excavation records compiled by John Pendlebury. This extensive section includes photographs and illustrations of archaeological finds from excavations in the Lasithi Plain during 1936-1939, as well as photographs of the excavation itself in progress and some amazing topographical shots of the Lasithi Plain. Many of these photographs and illustrations were published in The Annual of the British School at Athens, specifically in the articles ‘Excavations in the Plain of Lasithi. I. the Cave of Trapeza’, by H.W. Pendlebury, J.D.S. Pendlebury and M.B. Money-Coutts (vol. 36, 1935-1936), ‘Excavations in the Plain of Lasithi. II’, by J.D.S. Pendlebury, M.B. Money-Coutts and H.W. Pendlebury (vol. 38, 1937-1938) and ‘Karphi. A City of Refuge of the Early Iron Age in Crete’ (vol. 38, 1937-1938).

One of the advantages of EMu (the BSA’s collection management software used for museum and archive collections) is that it allows an archived item to be linked to the publications it relates to. For this reason, I have compared all the photographs and illustrations in this section with those published in the articles, in order to write the bibliographic reference of the article in the description of each item and make it easier for researchers to find the material.

Photographs captioned “Clay statues of goddesses 1 and 2 from the Temple [at Karphi]” [PEN 4/3/4/233 – 236]. Copyright: British School at Athens.

The photographs and illustrations in this section are very interesting: pottery, bronze objects, stone objects, and figurines. The photographs of the clay statues of Goddesses 1 and 2, which form part of the photograph album ‘Excavations in Lasithi, Crete, B.S.A.’ really caught my eye. Another image that caught my attention whilst cataloguing this section was that of several men dancing in an excavation at Karphi. The photograph was published in ‘Karphi. A City of Refuge of the Early Iron Age in Crete’ (vol. 38, 1937-1938) and captioned ¨A dance in the barracks¨.

This photograph looked familiar to me, and I realised that I had already seen it in another part of the archive. The photo forms part of a series of twenty photographs included in the album of Pendlebury’s trips around Crete from 1934-1939. The very amusing series documents how some of the men working in the excavation on Saturday, 8th July, 1939, whilst on a break of work, began to sing mantinades and dance. Slowly, more men joined them, and finally, everyone ended up dancing and singing. Every photograph in this photo-story is captioned, and it’s easy to have a clear understanding of what was happening. A short story told in photographs.

Series of 20 photographs documenting men singing and dancing mantinades at Karphi [PEN 7/2/6/893 – 912]. Copyright: British School at Athens.

In the beginning, I wasn’t sure what mantinades (the songs they were singing) were and, I did a bit a research and learned that these are the most common form of folk song in Crete. The origin of the word mantinada (singular of mantinades) is the Venetian “matinada”, which means “morning song”. Every mantinada consists of 15-syllable rhyming couplets in the dialect of the island, and they are normally performed in accompaniment of the lyre. The songs, which can be satiric and also didactic, express many and different emotions such as sorrow, joy, hope, desire, love, anger, revenge or nostalgia. Most of them are dedicated to love and romance, but there are others dedicated to everyday life, exile, and death.

I have recently been listening to some songs on YouTube, and they are great. There is something new to learn every day working with the John Pendlebury Papers! The next new challenge will be the photographic negatives, fragile and fascinating… I’ll keep you posted!




Awesome Women in the John Pendlebury Family Papers

Over the last two weeks, I have catalogued some of the photograph albums that form part of the John Pendlebury Family Papers collection. As I wrote in my previous post, I started cataloguing one of the photograph albums containing handwritten itineraries and photos of Pendlebury’s trips around Crete from 1934-1939.

One of the biggest challenges that I’ve had to face whilst carrying out this task has been to indentify people included in the photographs. It hasn’t been easy; most of the photographs included in the album have a caption, but sometimes the handwriting is difficult to understand and other times there is no caption at all. I have, however, had great help from work carried out by my predecessor, Madelin. The great level of detail so far included in the catalogue has helped me to compare names and dates -even faces!- and the rest of the collection has given me some broader context regarding the people surrounding John Pendlebury at that particular moment of his life. Identifying these people has been, somewhat, like solving a puzzle!

Whilst I was cataloguing photographs taken during the excavations in Tzermiadho (Crete) in the summer of 1937, one in particular caught my eye. This photograph shows a woman from behind, smiling as she peers back at the camera. Next to her, a man also looks at the camera, in mockery. The photograph is captioned: ‘Vincent Desborough and Marion Pascoe’. Intrigued by this photo but, especially, by this woman, I did a bit of research into her background, and the story I found was fascinating:

Photograph captioned ‘Vincent Desborough and Marion Pascoe’ [PEN 7/2/6/728]. Copyright: British School at Athens.

Marion Pascoe Sarafis, archaeologist, activist and writer, was born in December 1913, the only child of an Anglo-Austrian family resident in Woking, England. Her childhood papers, covering the years 1913 -1938 are held at the Victoria and Albert Museum, in London. Marion’s father, Wallis Pascoe, was a stockbroker, and the family lived at ‘Bracken Hill’, a large Victorian house. It was in this house that Marion was educated by her mother, Anne Harding Kliamanek, until being sent to the Convent of the Sacred Heart in Tunbridge Wells, Kent, in 1925. Outgrowing the Convent’s limited academic opportunities, Marion yearned to go to University and, in 1932, after being coached in ancient Greek by a priest, she finally gained a place at Oxford University to read Classics.

After graduating from Oxford University, Marion took a postgraduate archaeology course at Cambridge, and then in 1936 travelled to Athens where she joined the British School at Athens the same year. The School Annual Report for the session 1936-1937 states of her time in Greece:

Miss M. Pascoe, B.A. – Society of Oxford Home-Students. Carried out a preliminary investigation of the Hagia Marina pottery, and assisted in Mr. Pendlebury’s excavations in Crete’

 According to the Annual Reports, Marion worked with the BSA for the next two years. In 1937, she worked at Chaeronea, on the prehistoric sites in the vicinity of Smokovo and Lake Xynias, and in Athens on the prehistoric pottery from Hagia Marina and Drachmani, as well as visiting Ithaca and Milos. In May and June of that year, she helped with excavations in Crete. During 1938, she completed her work at Chaeronea and helped with the excavations at Karphi. In 1939, whilst in Milos, she met her future husband, General Stefanos Sarafis (1890-1957), a leftist republican, who was exiled from the mainland for his political ideas. Their incipient friendship was, however, broken off by the Second World War.

From the ‘British School Annual Report for the session 1936-1937’. Copyright: British School at Athens
Photographs of the excavations at Karphi in the summer of 1938. Copyright: British School at Athens.


During the war, Marion returned to England where she became a founder member of the League for Democracy in Greece, which campaigned for the release of imprisoned resistance fighters and also lobbied for human rights in the country. In 1951, she also edited a book in English about the Greek Resistance Army. She finally returned to Greece in 1952 and married General Sarafis the same year. The couple lived in Athens for the next five years, and they had a daughter, Lee Sarafis. Those were years of tireless political activism, campaigning for the United Democratic Left Party. Unfortunately, in 1957, Marion and her husband were involved in a car accident in Athens, and General Sarafis was killed. Marion was also severely injured in the crash.

After this episode, Marion Pascoe Sarafis returned to Bracken Hill, where she spent the rest of her life pursuing her interests: reading English, French, German, Modern Greek and Latin. She retained her Greek citizenship and was an active campaigner during the 1967-74 Colonels’ dictatorship. She also worked on books on the Greek resistance as well as for the British Committee for the Restitution of the Parthenon Marbles and always retained her interest in Greece. Marion died in 1999.

It’s amazing the stories that can be found behind a simple photograph, isn’t it? These chance encounters whilst working with archive material make such incredible moments and so I am dedicating this blog entry to Marion Pascoe Sarafis in celebration of Women’s History Month, by telling the story of this really awesome woman.

Greetings from the new Project Assistant for the John Pendlebury Family Papers Archive

My name is Laura, and I have been appointed as the new Pendlebury Archive Project Assistant at the British School at Athens. Before moving to Athens, I lived and worked in Glasgow for five years, where I was an archive assistant for different organisations such as the Scottish Music Centre, the National Library of Scotland and Glasgow University Archive Services. It was at the University of Glasgow that I completed my MSc. in Information Management and Preservation in 2016.

I will be picking up this project where Madelin, the former Project Assistant who finished a large part of the work before leaving Athens for a new job opportunity in Cambridge, left off. And so, over the next four months I will see the Pendlebury Project to completion by finishing up the last bits of item level cataloguing and organising the remaining material to be digitised. After all the material has been processed, I will assess the digital data together with the BSA’s Archivist, Amalia Kakissis, to prepare it to be uploaded to EMu (the BSA’s collection management software used for museum and archive collections). The last part of the project will be to curate the digital data after the catalogue and digital images have been imported into EMu and make the Pendlebury Family Papers available online!

My aim during my first week at the BSA has been to familiarise myself with the material which forms the John Pendlebury Family Papers collection. This is a very rich collection which consists of correspondence, travel logs, and photographs as well as negatives, as Madelin has described in previous entries in this blog. The collection is fascinating. If I had to choose my favourite find of this first week, it would be the copy of Howard Carter’s letter to the Editor of The Illustrated London News on 30 May 1933. In this letter, Carter, who became a famous archaeologist after discovering the tomb of Tutankhamen in Egypt, thanks the Editor for sending him a letter from John Pendlebury where he describes his discoveries, including sculpture, at El Amarna, in Egypt. I read about Carter’s work during my degree in History at the University of Murcia, in Spain. In particular, I remember reading ‘Gods, Graves & Scholars: The Story of Archaeology’ by C.W. Ceram in my first year. Published in 1949, this book gives a romantic glimpse into the life and work of Carter and other archaeologists who worked in Egypt, Greece, Mesopotamia and South America. I feel very lucky to be able to work with this material!

Copy of a letter to the Editor of The Illustrated London News from Howard Carter, [1933]. Copyright: The British School at Athens
Copy of a letter to the Editor of The Illustrated London News from Howard Carter, [1933]. Copyright: The British School at Athens
Other items that have caught my eye are the excavation records and photographic material relating mainly to Crete. In fact, my task during this first week is to finish cataloguing one of the photograph albums containing handwritten itineraries and photos of Pendlebury’s trips around Crete from 1934 to 1939. Let’s see where these trips take me. I’ll keep you posted!

Reflections on my time as Project Assistant for the John Pendlebury Family Papers Archive: 8 months of John Pendlebury and family, archaeology, travel, photographs and digitisation

Back in the summer of 2015, after a Skype interview, I was lucky enough to be appointed as the Project Assistant for the John Pendlebury Family Papers Archive Project. I moved to Athens and the project commenced at the beginning of October. I started to learn a great deal about the Pendlebury family, archaeology and Greece.

Postcards of Athens, [c. 1927-28], from Hilda Pendlebury’s travel scrapbook. Copyright: The British School at Athens
I spent a fascinating 8 months cataloguing the archive in detail, repackaging the archive, and working with a local digitisation office to organise the digitisation of the archive. By the time I left at the end of June the archive was fully catalogued (mostly to item-level) and the photograph albums, letters and travel logs were digitised. These 3 sections are the richest in the archive and contain a multitude of early 20th century photographs of Greece, details of many trips taken by John and Hilda Pendlebury, and family letters covering the whole of John Pendlebury’s life.  

Travel log containing photographs and extracts from John Pendlebury’s letters to his father, from Greece 1923. Copyright: British School at Athens

Many of these family letters were written during John Pendlebury’s time as a student at Winchester College (1918-1923). I am very grateful to the Wykeham patrons (supporters of Winchester College) who generously funded my work and the digitisation work which was carried out.

There is still some work to be done on completing the digitisation, inputting catalogue data onto EMu (the BSA’s cataloguing software), and linking the digital images to catalogue entries. In an ideal world I would have been able to complete all these tasks, but as the project progressed it became clear that this would not be possible. We had to prioritise tasks but also made a huge leap forward towards completion.

I feel very fortunate to have had the chance to work at the British School at Athens on the John Pendlebury Family Archive. The project was really interesting and I learnt more about archaeology than I realised there was to know. I also gained valuable experience of cataloguing to item-level (which I had rarely done before) and working with EMu.

A page from one of John Pendlebury’s travel logs, containing photographs of a house in Cambridge and of Ralph Lavers (architect) and Herbert Pendlebury (Oct 1934). Copyright: The British School at Athens

I am writing this blog post from an unusually sunny Cambridge, where I am now working as an Assistant Archivist in the Department of Manuscripts and Archives at the University Library. As those who have followed my blog or know about the life of John Pendlebury will realise, he was no stranger to Cambridge. John was a student at Pembroke College and the Faculty of Classics, and John and Hilda lived in various houses in Cambridge between dig seasons in Greece and Egypt. Most mornings I walk past the site of one of their houses (now part of Robinson College).

I hope that my connections with John Pendlebury and the British School at Athens are not completely over, but if they are I will always look back with fond memories.

Approaching Karphi, April 2016. Copyright: British School at Athens

Following John and Hilda Pendlebury’s footsteps in Crete

My 2nd trip to Crete was with the British School at Athens’ Archivist (Amalia Kakissis) and the School’s current Early Career Fellow (Roderick Bailey). We stayed at the British School in Knossos, and together with staff from Knossos followed Pendlebury’s footsteps in Crete. Well…we selected which footsteps to follow as we only had a few days. Over the 14 years that John Pendlebury spent time in Crete he (often accompanied by his wife Hilda) travelled the length and breadth of the island, probably more than once.

Landscape near Karphi, April 2016. Copyright: British School at Athens

Whilst visiting Crete, we took the opportunity to recreate some of the photographs in the John Pendlebury Family Papers Archive. You can see some of our efforts in this blog post.

Taverna, British School in Knossos:


First we explored the archaeological site at Knossos where John was curator from 1929 to 1934.

South Propylaeum, Knossos Palace, 1933 (PEN 7/2/5/320). Copyright: BSA
Throne Room, Knossos Palace (May 1928) in a photograph album in the John Pendlebury Family Papers Archive (PEN 7/2/4/127). Copyright: British School at Athens
Pithos, Knossos Palace, Feb 1928 (PEN 7/2/4/37). Copyright: The British School at Athens
Inscribed stone, Knossos Palace, May 1928 (PEN 7/2/4/128). Copyright: The British School at Athens
John Pendlebury and Rosaleen Angus on the Royal Road, Knossos Palace, Mar-Jun 1933 (PEN 7/2/5/245). Copyright: British School at Athens

Around the Lasithi Plain we visited the sites of Karphi and the Trapeza Cave which John excavated under the BSA in 1936 and 1938, and Tzermiado village (where the excavation team was based).

Approaching Karphi, April 2016. Copyright: British School at Athens
Karphi (peak) – the settlement is just over the ridge on the right, between the Karphi and Koprana peaks. From a photograph album in the Pendlebury Archive (PEN 7/2/6/549), 24 May 1936. Copyright: British School at Athens

Views from Karphi:


Trapeza Cave:

View from entrance to Trapeza Cave, April 2016. Copyright: British School at Athens
Trapeza Cave, before excavation. May-Jun 1936 (PEN 7/2/6/517). Copyright: British School at Athens
Trapeza Cave after excavation, May-Jun 1936 (PEN 7/2/6). Copyright: British School at Athens

Dig-house, Tzermiado:

Excavation house in Tzermiado, April 2016. Copyright: British School at Athens

We visited Archanes and the Ideon Cave (birthplace of Zeus) on Mount Ida. These were both places that John and Hilda Pendlebury had been to.

Church in the centre of Archanes, April 2016. Copyright: British School at Athens

The Ideon Cave and views from the cave:


Entrance to Ideon Cave, May 1932 (PEN 7/2/4/405). Copyright: British School at Athens

We also spent some time in Heraklion and I visited the archaeological museum. This is an excellent museum and I really enjoyed seeing finds from Pendlebury’s excavations at the Trapeza Cave and Karphi. For example, I had seen many photographs of a monkey seal in the John Pendlebury Family Papers Archive. Travelling to Crete not only gave me the opportunity to see the cave where it was found (Trapeza), but to see the object on display and have it explained within a wider context. Now that I have seen the excavation sites and finds first hand, cataloguing the excavation records will be all the more enjoyable.

Workers by the Vitzelovrysis Spring near Karphi, 1939. John Pendlebury commissioned the stone surround for the spring. with the lettering designed by Eric Gill. Photograph in the John Pendlebury Family Papers Archive (PEN 7/2/6). Copyright: British School at Athens
Vitzelovrysi Spring, April 2016. Recreating the original photograph. Copyright: British School at Athens